可可小常識
可可豆烘烤可以保留巧克力的健康益處和口感

可可豆烘烤可以保留巧克力的健康益處和口感

Cocoa bean roasting can preserve both chocolate health benefits, taste 可可豆烘烤可以保留巧克力的健康益處和口感

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Manipulating the temperature and the length of time under which cocoa beans are roasted can simultaneously preserve and even boost the potency of some bioactive and antioxidant compounds while protecting desired sensory aspects of chocolate, according to Penn State researchers.
根據賓夕法尼亞州立大學的研究人員的說法,控制可可豆烘烤的溫度和時間長度, 可同時保留甚至提高某些生物活性和抗氧化劑化合物的效力,同時保護巧克力所需的感官方面。



That finding flies in the face of previous studies that indicate that roasting always results in a reduction in the polyphenol content in the beans. Cocoa polyphenols are believed to have a positive influence on human health, especially with regard to cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders and cancer prevention.
這一發現在以前的研究中表明,烘烤會導致豆類中多酚含量的降低。可可多酚被認為對人類健康具有積極影響,特別是對於心血管和炎性疾病,代謝紊亂和癌症預防。

Chocolate, a food usually consumed for pleasure, in recent years has been reconsidered as a source of healthy compounds, noted lead researcher Joshua Lambert, associate professor of food science. The goal of the study, he explained, was to learn whether the roasting of cocoa beans could both preserve preferred flavor characteristics and boost health benefits.

巧克力是一種吃起來會令人心情娛悅的食物,近年來已經被重新考慮為健康化合物的來源,食品科學副教授首席研究員Joshua Lambert指出。他解釋說,這項研究的目的是了解可可豆的烘烤是否既可以保留優選的風味特徵,又可以增加健康益處。

Researchers investigated the impact of whole-bean roasting on the polyphenol content, aroma-related chemistry and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of cocoa under a range of roasting conditions. The inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity is a potential anti-obesity strategy.
Pancreatic lipase breaks down triglycerides into fatty acids, which then get absorbed through the lining of the small intestine. A pancreatic lipase inhibitor prevents the formation of fatty acids and therefore prevents absorption of dietary fats into the body.

研究人員研究了全豆焙燒對一系列焙烤條件下,可可多酚的含量,香氣相關化學和胰脂肪酶抑制活性的影響。胰脂肪酶活性的抑制是潛在的抗肥胖策略。胰脂肪酶將甘油三酯分解成脂肪酸,然後通過小腸的內層吸收。胰脂肪酶抑制劑可防止脂肪酸的形成,從而防止膳食脂肪吸收到體內。

In the study, total phenolics, epicatechin, and smaller proanthocyanidins were reduced by roasting at temperatures under 302 degrees Fahrenheit, Lambert pointed out. By contrast, roasting at 302 F or above increased the levels of catechin and larger proanthocyanidins, which have a greater ability to inhibit pancreas lipase.

蘭伯特指出,在這項研究中,總酚,表兒茶素和較小的原花青素通過在302°F (攝氏150℃) 以下的溫度下進行烘焙而減少。相比之下,在302°F(攝氏150℃)或更高溫度下烘烤會增加兒茶素和較大原花色素的水平,後者俱有更強的抑制胰脂肪酶的能力。

Consistent with these changes, researchers found that cocoa roasted at 338 F better inhibited pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity than cocoa roasted at lower temperatures. Cocoa aroma-related compounds increased with roasting above 212 F, whereas deleterious sensory-related compounds formed at more severe temperatures, 338 F.

與這些變化相一致,研究人員發現,可可豆在338℉ (攝氏170℃)下烘焙的可可,比在低溫下烘焙更能增加胰脂肪酶的抑制活性。

烘烤高於212℉(攝氏100℃)時,可可香氣相關化合物增加。

而在高溫338℉(攝氏170℃)的烘烤下,會形成有害的感官相關化合物。

The research findings suggest that cocoa roasting can be optimized to increase the content of some polyphenols and boost anti-pancreas-lipase activity, while maintaining a favorable aroma profile, Lambert pointed out.

蘭伯特指出,研究結果表明,可可豆烘烤可以優化增加一些多酚的含量,增強抑制胰脂酶活性,同時保持良好的香氣特徵。

"Our results show that if you look at the individual polyphenolic content or the individual polyphenol compounds in cocoa, roasting causes some of them to go down while some of them go up," he said. "It is more complicated than saying that roasting leads to a decrease in phenolic content, and that by extension roasting reduces the health beneficial effects of cocoa."

我們的研究結果表明,如果你看一下可可中的單個多酚含量或單個多酚化合物,就會導致其中一些含量下降而其中一些含量上升他說“烘烤導致可可多酚含量減少,這說起來更複雜,然而延長烘烤則會降低可可的健康有益效果。”

Beyond cocoa and chocolate, going forward Lambert predicted that more attention will be focused on how processing can affect the health beneficial effects of food.

除了可可和巧克力,前進蘭伯特預測,更多的注意力將集中在加工如何影響食品的健康有益效果上。



"The effects of roasting and processing are complex and it's important to better understand what's going on in terms of the effect of the processing on the chemistry of the food," Lambert said. "We need to know how processing really affects the biological activity rather than to make an assumption that processing is always bad and that unprocessed or minimally-processed foods are always more healthful."

烘烤和加工的效果很複雜,更好地了解加工對食品化學的影響正在發生什麼,”蘭伯特說。“我們需要知道加工是如何真正影響生物活動的,而不是假設加工過程總是很糟糕,未經加工或加工最少的食品總是更健康。”

One case in point are studies that show that the human body is able to absorb lycopene better from tomato sauce than from raw tomatoes -- cooking tomatoes improves the bioavailability of the antioxidant, he said.

他說:其中一個例子就是研究表明,人體能夠從番茄醬中更好地吸收番茄紅素而不是生番茄 - 烹飪西紅柿可以提高抗氧化劑的生物利用度。

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資料來源:賓州州立大學提供。原作由Jeff Mulhollem撰寫

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/04/180404163629.htm

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