可可小常识
可可豆烘烤可以保留巧克力的健康益处和口感

可可豆烘烤可以保留巧克力的健康益处和口感

Cocoa bean roasting can preserve both chocolate health benefits, taste 可可豆烘烤可以保留巧克力的健康益处和口感

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Manipulating the temperature and the length of time under which cocoa beans are roasted can simultaneously preserve and even boost the potency of some bioactive and antioxidant compounds while protecting desired sensory aspects of chocolate, according to Penn State researchers.
根据宾夕法尼亚州立大学的研究人员的说法,控制可可豆烘烤的温度和时间长度, 可同时保留甚至提高某些生物活性和抗氧化剂化合物的效力,同时保护巧克力所需的感官方面。



That finding flies in the face of previous studies that indicate that roasting always results in a reduction in the polyphenol content in the beans. Cocoa polyphenols are believed to have a positive influence on human health, especially with regard to cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders and cancer prevention.
这一发现在以前的研究中表明,烘烤会导致豆类中多酚含量的降低。可可多酚被认为对人类健康具有积极影响,特别是对於心血管和炎性疾病,代谢紊乱和癌症预防。

Chocolate, a food usually consumed for pleasure, in recent years has been reconsidered as a source of healthy compounds, noted lead researcher Joshua Lambert, associate professor of food science. The goal of the study, he explained, was to learn whether the roasting of cocoa beans could both preserve preferred flavor characteristics and boost health benefits.

巧克力是一种吃起来会令人心情娱悦的食物,近年来已经被重新考虑为健康化合物的来源,食品科学副教授首席研究员Joshua Lambert指出。他解释说,这项研究的目的是了解可可豆的烘烤是否既可以保留优选的风味特徵,又可以增加健康益处。

Researchers investigated the impact of whole-bean roasting on the polyphenol content, aroma-related chemistry and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of cocoa under a range of roasting conditions. The inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity is a potential anti-obesity strategy.
Pancreatic lipase breaks down triglycerides into fatty acids, which then get absorbed through the lining of the small intestine. A pancreatic lipase inhibitor prevents the formation of fatty acids and therefore prevents absorption of dietary fats into the body.

研究人员研究了全豆焙烧对一系列焙烤条件下,可可多酚的含量,香气相关化学和胰脂肪酶抑制活性的影响。胰脂肪酶活性的抑制是潜在的抗肥胖策略。胰脂肪酶将甘油三酯分解成脂肪酸,然后通过小肠的内层吸收。胰脂肪酶抑制剂可防止脂肪酸的形成,从而防止膳食脂肪吸收到体内。

In the study, total phenolics, epicatechin, and smaller proanthocyanidins were reduced by roasting at temperatures under 302 degrees Fahrenheit, Lambert pointed out. By contrast, roasting at 302 F or above increased the levels of catechin and larger proanthocyanidins, which have a greater ability to inhibit pancreas lipase.

兰伯特指出,在这项研究中,总酚,表儿茶素和较小的原花青素通过在302°F (摄氏150℃) 以下的温度下进行烘焙而减少。相比之下,在302°F(摄氏150℃)或更高温度下烘烤会增加儿茶素和较大原花色素的水平,后者俱有更强的抑制胰脂肪酶的能力。

Consistent with these changes, researchers found that cocoa roasted at 338 F better inhibited pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity than cocoa roasted at lower temperatures. Cocoa aroma-related compounds increased with roasting above 212 F, whereas deleterious sensory-related compounds formed at more severe temperatures, 338 F.

与这些变化相一致,研究人员发现,可可豆在338℉ (摄氏170℃)下烘焙的可可,比在低温下烘焙更能增加胰脂肪酶的抑制活性。

烘烤高於212℉(摄氏100℃)时,可可香气相关化合物增加。

而在高温338℉(摄氏170℃)的烘烤下,会形成有害的感官相关化合物。

The research findings suggest that cocoa roasting can be optimized to increase the content of some polyphenols and boost anti-pancreas-lipase activity, while maintaining a favorable aroma profile, Lambert pointed out.

兰伯特指出,研究结果表明,可可豆烘烤可以优化增加一些多酚的含量,增强抑制胰脂酶活性,同时保持良好的香气特徵。

"Our results show that if you look at the individual polyphenolic content or the individual polyphenol compounds in cocoa, roasting causes some of them to go down while some of them go up," he said. "It is more complicated than saying that roasting leads to a decrease in phenolic content, and that by extension roasting reduces the health beneficial effects of cocoa."

我们的研究结果表明,如果你看一下可可中的单个多酚含量或单个多酚化合物,就会导致其中一些含量下降而其中一些含量上升他说“烘烤导致可可多酚含量减少,这说起来更复杂,然而延长烘烤则会降低可可的健康有益效果。”

Beyond cocoa and chocolate, going forward Lambert predicted that more attention will be focused on how processing can affect the health beneficial effects of food.

除了可可和巧克力,前进兰伯特预测,更多的注意力将集中在加工如何影响食品的健康有益效果上。



"The effects of roasting and processing are complex and it's important to better understand what's going on in terms of the effect of the processing on the chemistry of the food," Lambert said. "We need to know how processing really affects the biological activity rather than to make an assumption that processing is always bad and that unprocessed or minimally-processed foods are always more healthful."

烘烤和加工的效果很复杂,更好地了解加工对食品化学的影响正在发生什么,”兰伯特说。“我们需要知道加工是如何真正影响生物活动的,而不是假设加工过程总是很糟糕,未经加工或加工最少的食品总是更健康。”

One case in point are studies that show that the human body is able to absorb lycopene better from tomato sauce than from raw tomatoes -- cooking tomatoes improves the bioavailability of the antioxidant, he said.

他说:其中一个例子就是研究表明,人体能够从番茄酱中更好地吸收番茄红素而不是生番茄 - 烹饪西红柿可以提高抗氧化剂的生物利用度。

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资料来源:宾州州立大学提供。原作由Jeff Mulhollem撰写

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/04/180404163629.htm

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